Рюриковичи. 1 Серия. Документальная Драма. Star Media

Рюриковичи. 1 Серия. Документальная Драма. Star Media

Ministry of Culture
of the Russian Federation The Russian Military
and Historical Society with the Support of the Government
of the Novgorod Region present “There was no truth among them,
and a kin turned against a kin, and a war started,
and they began fighting each other…” That huge land
had everything in abundance. Except for peace. Each tribe and each kin was ardently
defending its own interests – until they all met at the very edge. Just a bit more, and nobody
would be left to populate that land. People were coming from all
the corners of the immense land. Farmers, merchants, hunters, warriors – everybody who survived
the bloody massacre. They were walking looking
at their neighbor with suspicion, ready to snatch the sword out
any moment… They were going to decide their fate. They had to take a decision that
was to lay foundations of a new state. In 50 years, Rus will confidently
enter the international arena. In 120,
it will become a Christian nation. It will withstand an invasion
that devastated many states. It will outlive mighty empires. It will spread and become
the largest country of the world. In the course of seven centuries, its fate will be determined
by the descendants of one prince’s kin that became a great dynasty. THE RURIK DYNASTY. Episode One In the middle of the 5th century,
Slavic tribes settled over a huge territory between the three seas – the Black,
the White and the Baltic. They called themselves “Slovene”
from the word “slovo” – “word”, or “those who know the word”. It meant that they were talking
a language they understood as opposed to the neighboring nations
whose language the Slavs didn’t understand and called them “nemtsi” from the word
“nemoy”, “deaf and dumb”. The Slavs were governed by a “Veche”,
or people’s council. They mostly worked on the land and also
in the forest and on the river. They preferred to settle along rivers. A river fed them and gave them
the way to the other lands. Each settlement was surrounded
with a fence and called a “grad”, “a town”. The Scandinavian merchants, the most
frequent guests of the Russian North, were so impressed with the quantity
of the reinforced settlements there that they called those lands Gardariks,
or a Land of Towns. The forests around them
teemed with fur game. The northern furs were
a very expensive and popular good. On the markets of East and West,
the price for sables, beavers and weasels exceeded
their buying price thousand-fold. Thanks to the “soft gold”,
a small settlement on the bank of the Volkhov River
transformed into a bustling city of merchants and artisans
that the Slavs called Ladoga. Ancient Ladoga was situated
on a high bank. Trade moors and ship repair workshops
were located along the shore. The residents of Ladoga used the planks
left from boarding of the boats to pave the streets
and floor their houses. The Trade Square was
the center of the city; the Veche gathered there too.
The Trade Square, or Torg, was surrounded by workshops –
jewelry, bone-cutting, carpenter, ceramics and casting
where special beads called “eyes” were cast using the Arabic technology. Those beads were used to pay
the forest hunters for their furs that was later re-sold to the foreign
merchants for silver coins, dirhems, that circulated freely
on all the markets of Europe and Asia. Huge profits of Ladoga had a reserve side –
they attracted bandits. However, the war between their own people
was much scarier than any invasion. Each tribe and each kin wanted to have
its share of the profits from furs. They failed to come to terms. Only when the ashes
covered their households, did Slavs and the forest people
come to their senses. They said: “Let us look for a prince
who will own us and judge us justly…” The general council of the tribes decided
that they needed a prince with neither interests nor roots
on their land – an outsider. He had to be a brilliant warrior
to organize a reliable defense, and an experienced ruler to divide
profits and pass fair judgements. They found such a person behind the sea,
in a northern land. The prince’s name was Rurik. The personality of Rurik
mostly comes from tales. The best-grounded scientific theory
identifies the first Russian prince with a famous Danish konung,
or king – Rorik of Jutland, who disappeared from the pages
of the western chronicles at the same time when the Slavic tribes
chose a prince to rule them. Alternative versions about the Slavic,
Persian and even Celtic descend of Rurik don’t stand up to the archeological
and linguistic evidence. The written sources
also fail to confirm that. All his life, he was greedy for glory. All his life, he had been fighting. The best warriors of the North were ready
to go to the edge of the world if he called them. He was lucky, brave and merciless. Then, the envoys arrived
from the Land of Towns, and said: “Our land is large and rich
but there is no order in it. Come to rule and to own us”! Those land had everything in abundance –
forests and rivers, honey and furs, tender ladies and brave warriors. The king will be rich there. Will he be free? No. The envoys hinted that the king would have
to swear allegiance to the people. Scandinavian warriors traditionally
swore on their swords and luck. A man who violated his oath
was destined to die of his own sword. Who is he? A warrior or a bandit?
A mercenary or a ruler? How will Konung Rorik go down in history? Rurik and his warriors agreed
to swear allegiance and serve that land and its peoples. Serve in accordance with an agreement
and custom – loyally and eternally. RURIK. Chapter One According to the agreement,
the prince was to defend the Slavic lands from the pirates and solve disputes
between the tribes. For that, he could collect tribute
from the population and, possibly,
get interest from the trade operations. In 190 km from Ladoga,
Rurik founded a fortress that served both as a prince’s
residence and an outpost in an important sector
of the trade route. Later, that place would be
called Rurik’s settlement. For some period of time, it was
a military and administrative center of the Slavic lands, until a new city
was built lower down the Volkhov. It was called Novgorod – the New City. The Volkhov River divided
Novgorod the Great into two sides, the Left-Bank
(later called the Sophia’s Side) and Right-Bank (the Trade Side). The majority of streets
were paved with wood, and those pavements were
two centuries older than in Paris. The biggest square
was by the prince’s court, and Veche would usually gather there. In the 12th century, Novgorod became
the first free city-republic in Rus and got a right to invite
and demote princes. It held onto its political independence
for more than three centuries. The economic might of the Great Novgorod that owned lands
from the Baltic Sea to the Urals made it one
of the richest cities of Europe. Rurik got control over vast lands. Fairy-tale opportunities
opened in front of him. Thousands of merchants travelling
with their goods along the Volkhov were paying taxes for the right of way. The Prince of Novgorod held
many trade routes in his hands – the ancient Volga route “from
the Varangians to the Persians” and a new Dnieper one, “from the Varangians
to the Greeks” leading into Byzantium. The Byzantine Empire
inherited land and civilization of the ancient Greece and Rome. By the 9th century,
it occupied a huge territory – around 3,5 million square kilometers. In the course of the centuries, the Empire was the mightiest state
of the Mediterranean region. Its capital Constantinople,
or Tsargrad (“Tsar’s City”) as it was called in Rus,
was the largest city of the medieval world. People of Rus told legends
about the beauty and riches of Tsargrad. The Byzantine merchants were bringing
incredibly beautiful fabrics and wonderful jewelry
to the northern markets. Constantinople was a cherished goal
of every warrior, a city where all dreams
were supposed to come true. Rurik was obsessed
with Constantinople too. During the fourth year of his rule,
he sent his trusted war leaders Askold and Dir and their troops
to test their luck. Time passed. Merchants from far-away lands
were bringing hazy news about the Russians
that came to Constantinople, and then perished when a sea storm
ruined their fleet. However, Askold and Dir didn’t die
by the walls of Constantinople. They came back – not to Novgorod,
though, but to Kiev, the very center of the trade route,
and began to rule it. In a state that had still been developing,
two centers of power appeared. One was in Kiev that was located
closer to the Great Steppe and the Byzantine Empire, and Novgorod, closer to the Northern
and Western Europe. The further geopolitical
development of the state depended on which of the cities
would become more powerful. However,
it wasn’t Rurik who decided that. The first Russian prince
who arrived from behind the sea was leaving for good to a place
people don’t come back from. His subjects were bidding farewell
to him with all possible solemnness trying to facilitate the way
of the dead into the other world. The pagan funeral rite
stipulated a fire burial. It was believed that smoke takes the soul
of the deceased to the upper world. The body was placed on a construction
made out of logs. Close to him, everything that
he could need in the other world was placed – including slaves and horses. Noble warriors were buried in a boat. After the burning, the ashes
were collected into a special jar, and a mound was erected over it. Then, a trizna, or a burial
commemoration feast, was taking place. It included a tournament,
a competition in a military art. The foreign prince did everything
as promised; he didn’t violate his oath. No matter who he had been,
a Slav or a Scandinavian, an experienced ruler or a lucky robber, Prince Rurik became the founder
of the first ruling dynasty in the country the history
of which began from an agreement between the ruler and his people. That land had neither a name
nor a united territory. And its Prince hadn’t even turn two. According to Rurik’s testament, the power was handed over
to his trusted war leader Oleg. Oleg was to rule
until Rurik’s son came of age. The fate of the dynasty
fell into the hand of a person who wasn’t connected with it
with blood ties but became its pillar according
to the rules of honor. OLEG THE PROPHET. Chapter Two The year was 882. Huge troops were moving along
the rivers of the endless woodland land. It was led by a young war leader Oleg. He was going to Kiev to get rid
of a hinder for the free transit trade – the self-proclaimed
princes Askold and Dir. The real legal prince, Igor, son of Rurik, was too small
and didn’t remember his father. Oleg became everything for him – his teacher, his protector,
and his patron. In that campaign,
Oleg taught him his first serious lessons. Sailing along the Dnieper,
he took two towns at strategically important sections
of the trade route under his control, namely Smolensk and Lyubech. After providing for a reliable rear, he approached Kiev under the disguise
of a merchant caravan. Oleg and little Igor disembarked. The self-proclaimed Princes Askold and Dir
came out to look at the foreign goods. Warriors ran off the ships at them. Oleg said: “You’re not Princes;
you don’t come from the kin of princes”, and pointed at Igor:
“He, however, is a son of Rurik”. The rulers of Kiev
didn’t have time to respond. They were killed right there,
at the bank. On seizing Kiev, Oleg united
huge territories under his power and got control over a major part
of the trade route “from the Varangians to the Greeks”. Novgorod became the northern outpost of the country while Kiev transformed
into its heart. From Kiev,
Oleg started to spread his authority into all spheres of life along the route
“from the Varangians to the Greeks” wherever his troops could reach. The first thing he did, he started
a campaign against the Drevlians. The Drevlians were the only tribe
out of all Dnieper Slavs who weren’t paying tribute to anyone,
and they didn’t want it to change. However, they couldn’t resist
hardened warriors of Kiev. Oleg defeated the Drevlians
and made them pay yearly tribute to Kiev. In a year,
Oleg campaigned against the Severians. They knew about the plight
of their neighbors. So, they threw weapons aside
in the first battle and agreed to pay the same tribute. Later, the Radimichi went under the hand
of Kiev – under the same conditions. The scheme of the accession
was the same everywhere. The power of the Prince of Kiev
permitted him to collect tribute from other lands, and for that,
he had to provide a garrison of Varangians for the defense of the tribe
and construct a small fortress. Those Oleg’s outposts became the basis
for many towns of the Southern Rus. Many years passed. Almost the entire trade route
“from then Varangians into the Greeks” was under control of Kiev’s Prince Oleg. Countless merchant caravans
were sailing along the Dnieper, certain in their safety. The only thing he lacked
were beneficial conditions for trade on the main market of Europe –
in Constantinople. Oleg went to seize Tsargrad, leaving a now adult Prince Igor,
son of Rurik, in Kiev. Oleg wasn’t sure
that he would return alive for that campaign he started
was very difficult and dangerous. The army that left Kiev was huge
by those times standards – a long caravan of battle ships. The Scandinavian sea vessels, drakkars
and shnekers, were 10-20 meters long. They moved with a help of a sail
and paddles and could develop speed of up to 12 knots (over 20 km per hour). Curved elements of its construction,
ribs and keels, were made of naturally curved tree trunks. The elements weren’t sawn
but cracked along the fibers due to what they were
especially flexible and durable. To sail rivers, Slavic boats,
monoxiles, were used. They were made of the hollowed-out
trunks of oaks and linden trees, with planks boarded on its sides. Such boats could carry
up to 20 tons of cargo and speed up to 7 knots (13 km per hour). Oleg’s fleet sailed down the Dnieper, crossed the stony teeth
of the Dnieper rapids where they had to drag the boats over, withstood sea storms nearly breaking into
splinters against the rocks by the shore. Golden outlines of the city of dreams
were already noticeable through Bosporus blue haze. Nobody stopped them
at the approaches to Tsargrad. The city was ready to fall into the hands of the Russian Prince Oleg
like a ripe fruit. However, a huge chain blocked their way
across the bay. “The barbarians will be helpless
without their ships”, the residents of Constantinople thought. Then, Oleg orders to pull
the ships onto the shore and put them on wooden rollers. The Greeks were amazed – the ships of the barbarians
were sailing the land like the sea! They didn’t have time
to come to their senses when a huge army was already
standing by the city walls. The Greek Ambassadors
went out to meet Oleg. It was the first time when
arrogant men from Constantinople had to talk so politely with a barbarian. The Greeks said: “Don’t ruin the city. We’ll give you the tribute
in the amount that you want”. Oleg wanted neither honors nor presents. Oleg wanted to have trade privileges
for the Russian merchants. He got what he came for. The Russians got a right
of tax-free trade in Constantinople, an incredible benefit that none
of the barbarian, aka pagan people had ever succeeded in obtaining. It meant the international recognition
of the Russian state. To demonstrate that Tsargrad
was under his protection now, Oleg ordered to nail
his battle shield over the city gates. The international trade,
the base for the economics of the young Russian state,
got the green light. The route
“from the Varangians to the Greeks” started working full force,
providing the Slavic cities with goods and silver. He returned to Kiev with an incredible,
unexpected victory worthy of a great hero. And with a nickname of Veshiy,
or Prophet, as he was deemed to see the future. The word “veshiy” derives
from the ancient Indian root “ved” which means
“possessing of secret knowledge”. The Indians Veds,
collections of secret wisdom, and Russian words “vedun”
(“wizard”) and “vedma” (“a witch”) – magicians, healers, intermediaries between
the world – derive from that root too. According to another version, “Veshiy”
was the translation of the Prince’s name. Oleg or Olg is a Slavic version
of the Scandinavian name “Helga” that means “holy” or “sacred”, “the one who has a gift
of seeing the future”. The real name of the person who went down in history as Veshiy Oleg,
or Oleg the Prophet, is unknown. The same is true
for the real cause of his death; the place of his burial is unknown too, as mounds bearing
the name “Oleg’s Grave” are located both in Kiev and in Ladoga. Just in the course of a half of a century,
a time that equals one human life, Oleg the Prophet transformed
separate lands into a state, huge by those times standards. He nearly doubled the territory
bequeathed to him by Rurik. Oleg fulfilled everything
that he had to, and disappeared in the fog
of ancient legends passing the power to the legal heir,
Igor, son of Rurik. For many years, many considered him
to be just a shadow of Oleg the Prophet. He was a Prince only by the word.
Now, the time for action came. He, Prince Igor, son of Rurik,
will become a winner too, and the heroes of Tsargrad will solemnly
carry him on the battle shields… IGOR THE ANCIENT. Chapter Three Igor had long been an adult
and knew well how to rule, fight and judge. Now, he was a real prince, both in the eyes of his army
and residents of Kiev. And for the daughter of a boater who became the most important girl
in his life. According to the legend, in his youth
when hunting in the forests of Pskov, Prince Igor came out
to a river crossing. He got into the boat and found out
that a girl was paddling it, and that she was very beautiful. “Passions overcame him,
and he turned to her with shameless words. But she said:
“Don’t hope to take me with force. I’d better be swallowed
by this deep river than tempt you”. Igor felt ashamed
and crossed the river in silence but kept her image in his heart”. After returning to Kiev,
Igor ordered to find the beautiful girl. He married her. That was how a girl from Pskov
called Olga became the Princess of Kiev. In Ancient Rus,
a marriage was arranged by an agreement between the relatives of the bribe
and a groom, or his relatives. The ancient custom of stealing the bride was giving the husband a full right
of ownership to his wife. The custom of “buying the bride out”
appeared later and gave some rights to a woman, including the right to divorce
and marry again. From the moment the bride
entered her groom’s home, she was symbolically dying for her kin
to be reborn in her husband’s family. That’s why a husband had to carry
his young wife into his house in his arms, like a newborn baby. When left alone, the couple had
to eat porridge with one spoon, have some boiled chicken
and a loaf of bread. Then, the wife had to take
a shoe off her husband as a sign of her humility. In the right boot,
there was usually a coin. And from a left one,
a husband had to take out a whip and lightly hit his wife
to demonstrate his power over her. The power of the Prince of Kiev
on the most part of the Russian state was nominal. Each tribe had its own rulers,
customs and gods. Annual payments of tribute were
the only sign of their obedience to Kiev. However, it was Oleg the Prophet
who had imposed that tribute, and not every tribe wanted
to continue paying to the new Prince. The Drevlians were the first
to stop the payments. Prince Igor started a war
with the Drevlians, defeated them and imposed an even bigger tribute –
to stop the others from trying their luck. He shared the rich loot gains
among his troops, to inspire the warriors to serve better. The troops of the Prince,
or his “druzhina”, amounted to 200-400 people and
constituted the most battle-capable core of the Ancient Rus’s army. During the wars,
the warriors were awarded with the loot, and in peaceful times –
with a share from the collected tribute, lavish feasts and Prince’s gifts. During the first century
of the Ancient Rus’s history the Prince was considered to be
“the first among equals” in his troops and had to listen to their interests. If the warriors weren’t satisfied
with the Prince for some reason – for example,
he rarely organized campaigns or was not generous enough, the druzhina could leave him
for another ruler. After the suppression of the Drevlians,
there were no campaigns for a long time. The troops were getting
more and more restless. However, in 939
the Greek ambassadors arrived in Kiev and offered the Prince
to fight the nomads, the Khazars that were
bothering the Empire. The offer was reinforced with rich gifts
and flattering speeches: “Our Emperor is in need of help
of a great warrior, the Prince of Rus. What glory and rich loot awaits a person
who will defeat the Khazars”… Igor didn’t think much before agreeing. The Russian troops fought the Khazars
and were completely devastated. To save the remainders
of the troops and come back home, Igor was forced to conclude peace
with the Khazars – on their conditions. They demanded the incredible –
to enter a war with Byzantine! Igor strove to show
what he was capable of for long. He decided to go to Tsargrad
by the road taken by Oleg the Prophet. And outdo him in heroic acts,
loot and glory. After two years
of thorough preparations, the Russian troops started
a campaign against Tsargrad. Prince Igor mobilized all his resources. Huge fleet was accompanied
by the cavalry riding along the bank. The reconnaissance helped choose
the best moment for the attack when the Greek fleet
was fighting with the Arabs and Constantinople
remained without defense. When Igor’s fleet approached Bosporus,
15 small vessels met them in the bay. The Russian’s battleships encircled them. However, the Greek miserable shells
suddenly exploded in the fiery storm. That was the first time the Russians
encountered the Greek fire. The Greek fire was the secret weapon
of Byzantine, a fiery mixture based on oil and saltpetre
that didn’t go out in water. Its exact composition was kept secret
and is still unknown to our day. The mixture was heated
under pressure in special pots and excreted to the distance of 30 meters
via bronze pipes – syphons. Specials syphon masters
were working on them. Usually,
three syphons were located on the nose of a light Byzantine vessel
with sails and paddles. However, additional syphons were installed on the sides and at the stern
to fight the Russians. The ships let the Russian boats approach as much as they could
and poured fire on them. Igor suffered a humiliating defeat and retreated with the remainder
of his troops. Because of bad organization
of the campaign, many of the Russian warriors died
on the way back from dysentery. Igor returned to Kiev without any loot
and almost without his army. However, the following spring
he went against Tsargrad again. That time, he had his allies, the Pechenegs
from the Great Steppes, with him. The fast cavalry of the steppe people
was well-known in Byzantine with their cruel and lighting fast raids. The Emperor decided not to test his fate and sent ambassadors
with rich gifts to meet Igor and offer him to renew
the previous agreement. On signing a beneficial
trade agreement with Byzantine, Igor returned to Kiev
without a single battle, considering himself a winner. That autumn was a happy time for him. His long-awaited son was born. The boy got a name of Svyatoslav, and it was the first Slavic name
in the history of Rurik’s kin. Now, Igor had
who to hand the throne over to. All the tribes were silently paying
a tribute to him, and the state
was under his complete control. Or so it seemed to him… The tribute from the subject tribes
was collected during the polyudie, that was how the travel around
all the lands dependent on him called. Prince usually began it in the company
of this druzhina in autumn ending it by spring. The agreed volumes of furs and silver were collected in sacks
and stamped with Prince’s stamp. Besides,
relying on a custom of hospitality, Prince demanded food
for himself and his army, and he also gladly accepted
expensive gifts. The amount of additional takings
wasn’t formalized. The polyudie could be accompanied
by robberies and repressions against the locals. In winter of 944, when Prince Igor was returning
from polyudie in the land of the Drevlians, his druzhina
said that they didn’t take enough. The warriors told me about an example
of his own war leader. They said that Swineld’s people
got hold of new weapons and clothes. Igor hated somebody’s luck
to exceed his own. So, he came back to the Drevlians
to collect the tribute again, in violation of all the rules
and agreements. The Drevlians didn’t want
to suffer arbitrariness of the Prince. They came out to fight Igor as an invader. The Prince was taken prisoner and
suffered a painful and shameful execution. His legs were tied
to the tops of the trees, then they were let go,
and he was torn in half – for everybody’s edification. To scare those who would rule
in Kiev after Igor. If somebody would. A similar thing happened many years ago when little Igor became the ruler
of a new state after Rurik’s death. However, mighty figure of a war leader Oleg
was always by his side. Now, Kiev was to be ruled
by three-year-old Svyatoslav. He was shadowed by a tender woman,
his mother Princess Olga. HOLY OLGA. Chapter Four Her Prince died and she was nothing more
but a defenseless widow. A person who killed her husband
had a right to everything that the deceased owned, including
the powers to Kiev and her – Olga. The Prince of the Drevlians could
simply come and take her by force, but he offered an honorable
way out of the situation. He sent envoys to Olga. She appreciated that noble gesture and honored them, in her turn –
the envoys were carried to the palace in the arms of her people, in the boat. On the yard of the palace,
a big hole with fire was ready. The Drevlians were thrown
in it together with the boat. Olga bent to the hole and asked them:
“Do you like the honor”? That was how Olga’s war began. She started a campaign against the capital
of the Drevlians, Iskorosten. She had to destroy the town
where her husband met his downfall. According to the custom,
a Prince had to begin the battle by throwing a spear. However,
three-year-old Svyatoslav was too small to hold it with one hand,
so he held it with both. He failed to raise it
but he did manage to throw it. Forward, at the enemy.
The spear fell on the ground. The loud voice of the war leader
rose above the battlefield: “The Prince has started the battle!
Warriors, let’s follow our Prince”! And the earth shook
under the hoofs of the cavalry. On seeing that Iskorosten
was impenetrable, Olga, according to the chronicle,
succumbed to the ruse of war. She told the Drevlians that
she would leave for a symbolic tribute of three pigeons and three sparrows
from each household. She ordered her warriors
to tie a piece of burning tinder to each bird and let them go. Pigeons and sparrows returned
to their houses, and the town burnt. In the 18th century, the German scientist
August Ludwig Shletser was studying ancient Russian chronicles
and tried to determine whether birds could indeed carry fire. The cruel experiment failed as the birds
were dying before taking flight. Burning the city with a help of birds
is a widespread story of the world folklore. It is present, for example, in the legend about Alexander the Great
and in the Scandinavian sagas. For many nations,
a bird symbolizes the heavenly fire. This idea is still alive in our days. There is a belief that a bird that
accidentally flies into a household predicts a fire or death. It’s unknown how Iskorosten was burnt but there are no doubts
that it was ruined. When she burnt it,
she took the elders prisoners, and turned some into slaves for her men,
and made the rest pay tribute. Her war was over. Her life lost sense,
and she had to look for a new one. Revenge didn’t console the Princess. Even a sea of blood
wouldn’t resurrect her husband. Olga stayed alone with a small son
in a huge country. The rebellion of the Drevlians demonstrated
that the core of all conflicts was the tribute that resembled robbery. If the situation didn’t change,
Rus would be torn to pieces. So, Princess got down to business. Princess Olga established uroks,
strictly determined volumes of the tribute, pogosts, the places were to bring it to, and ustavs –
terms and rules of its collection. Polyudie with excessive feasts
and extortions by the army was replaced
with a well-defined system of taxation. All lands from Kiev to Novgorod
were divided into provinces under the control
of Prince’s administrator out of the trusted senior war leaders. They were directly accountable to Princess for everything that was happening
in his province. From that moment on
and up until the death of Princess Olga, there was not a single mentioning
of the rebellions in any of the tribes submitted to Kiev. Kiev was bustling with life now. Princess left for a campaign far away,
into Tsargrad. The residents of the city
got tired of counting the sacks loaded into countless boats. The envoy amounted to no less than
a thousand people not counting the guards. Olga was preparing
for the trip thoroughly. However, she was going not to the war
but to negotiations. She was burning with impatience than none
of her close people could comprehend. She was hurrying the ship team. Neither the tumultuous Dnieper rapids,
nor rains nor winds – nothing could stop her. Olga wanted to find a universal and
strong means of strengthening her state. Where else could she look for it
but in Byzantine, a huge Empire that had been successfully uniting
many nations for centuries? When Olga arrived in Tsargrad,
the Greek diplomates didn’t know how to combine
the centuries-old protocols of the official visits with her arrival
as they didn’t know its goal. Usually,
ambassadors came for negotiations, but Olga came personally. At last, they arranged
a luxurious feast in her honor. The reception took place in Magvarna,
a hall for parade ceremonies for the VIPs. The Emperor’s throne was decorated with
gold and precious stones and mechanized. When a secret lever was pulled, clockwork birds began to sing,
the throne went up and down and gilded lions by its pedestal
slapped the ground with their tails and roared,
opening their mouths and sticking out their tongues. That performance usually impressed
the foreign ambassadors greatly. All foreigners had to stick
to a ritual of proskynesis – fall down before the Emperor. The status of the Russian Princess
didn’t allow for that, so Olga barely bent her head
in appreciation. After a ceremonial event Olga got a chance to talk with Emperor Constantine
one on one. It’s unknown what they were talking about. However, after that, Constantine
took a pause for long 40 days. She got time to admire the treasures
of the greatest city of the world, first of all – with its countless shrines. The only Greek who was close
to the Princess while she was waiting was the Patriarch. He was talking, she was listening. Then the Princess found
what she was looking for. It was the Christian faith
that was holding Byzantine together. “Talking to her,
Prince was impressed with her smartness. He said: “You’re worthy of ruling
together with us in our capital”. She thought it over and replied:
“I am a pagan. If you want to baptize me, do it yourself.
Otherwise I won’t baptize”. Olga wanted to know the secret
of the Empire’s might. However, when baptizing in water, Olga – now not Olga anymore
but God’s slave Elena – found something more:
immortal soul and eternal life. According to a legend from a chronicle, after the baptizing the Emperor
called Olga again and said: “I want to marry you”.
And she said: “How may you marry me if you personally baptized me
and called me your daughter”? And the Emperor said:
“You outwitted me, Olga”. Princess went home, thinking not so much
of the results of the negotiations, military unions,
gifts and mutual agreements. What difference did they make now,
when her entire world had changed? On her way back to Kiev,
Olga had no doubts that the rest of her people
would follow her example. Maybe not everybody but the majority. First of all, her son Svyatoslav. Olga believed that he was ready to accept
the ideas of the Christianity. But Svyatoslav grew up among the army men. He grew up to be a warrior. He was already an adult, took control over the power
and was doing what he thought fit. The faith of the Christians
seemed not only stupid but also shameful for him. What kind of God
would allow people to kill him? Svyatoslav didn’t even want
to listen about baptizing. Princess’s hopes were ruined.
Kiev remained pagan. Only foreign merchants
from the Greek market were Christian, plus the close circle of the Princess –
a small island in the sea of pagans. Svyatoslav tolerated Christians
for his mother’s sake. But how much longer would that last? Years passed. Olga was no more a ruler
but the Princess-mother. Her grandchildren grew
but they weren’t interested in their grandmother’s icons either. However, Olga hoped.
Prayed. And believed. She died in 969. Svyatoslav fulfilled her last wish – to bury the Princess in accordance
with the Christian rites. Christians don’t burn their dead believing in their resurrection
in the end of times. The preparation of the body for burial
has a deep symbolic meaning and partially repeats the placing
of Christ into the coffin. The body of the deceased,
or rather temporarily asleep person, shall rest in peace. The Russian word for a dead man, pokoynik,
comes from the word “pokoy” – “rest”. On the third day after the death,
the dead is commemorated in a church and buried in the ground
in a wooden coffin. A cross is placed in his feet
as a sign of salvation. The grave is positioned
so that the dead face the east waiting for the morning
of the future world – the doomsday. Olga was one of the first Russian rulers
to convert to Christianity. She was also the first to be glorified in the rank of a holy person
equal to the apostles, that are respected both
by the Orthodox and Catholic churches. In 40 years after Olga’s death,
her grandson Prince Vladimir finished the construction
of the first stone church in Rus. He ordered to transfer
the coffin with the remains of his grandmother Princess Olga there. When the coffin was opened, the body of the Princess
turned out to be intact by decay. She seemed sleeping. Hers were the first imperishable relics
in the Russian history.

100 thoughts on “Рюриковичи. 1 Серия. Документальная Драма. Star Media

  1. Опять вранье! Опять "наряд" переводится как "порядок". До сих пор сохранились слова "урядник",а в украинском "уряд"-правительство .То есть не было правителя, наследника и на Руси(в Новгороде) случился династический кризис, а не всеобщая резня. Именно об этом пишет Татищев, ссылаясь на летописи. История жизни Эрика Ютландского известна и описана, он был заметной личностью. На Руси не бывал. Никаких упоминаний об этом. Нечего придумывать. Еще момент. Рюрик явился не сам, а "со всей Русью" которая и стала в последствии элитой. Тут и корней никаких не надо, чтобы на голову сесть. Приглашать на такое инородцев-смерть. И главное… Новгородцы, которые приглашали,- были язычниками. Русь, которую приглашали, тоже были язычники. Язычники- это люди, которые поклоняются обожествленным предкам(и только своим понятно)Они не могут поставить над собой чужеродца-это грех смертный! Он(чужеродец) поставит на их землях свои капища и будет питать и славить своих богов-предков. А на славянских капищах он требу не принесет чужим костям. Но в летописях как раз и говорится, что пришедшая Русь "по закону русскому" клялась Перуном и Велесом в договорах с Византией-значит славяне. И что там говорит археология? Вспомните"тюрковидных" запорожских казаков с их шабелюками, шароварами и оселедцями- а ведь славяне. Кстати, вспомним как выглядел Святослав. Так он славянин или кто? В то время славяне жили на более обширных территориях. И много откуда могли явиться.

  2. где-то в восьмом веке дикие безмозглые и ни на что не годные славяне, бродящие табунами по лесам, призвали к себе викинга Рюрика и сказали: «Владей нами, о великий европейский сверхчеловек, а то мы, идиоты, сами ничего не можем» (Вольное изложение учебника по истории).

    Hа самом деле, Рюрик — внук новгородского князя Гостомысла, сын его дочери Умилы и одного из соседних князей рангом помельче. И он был призван вместе с братьями, поскольку все четыре сына Гостомысла умерли или погибли в войнах. Был принят по уговору со старейшинами, и зело потрудился, чтобы заслужить уважение на Руси. Источник: Иоакимовская летопись, российская история по Татищеву, «Брокгауз и Ефрон» и т. д.

  3. Хорошая сказка, а можно документы откуда они это взяли?) Только тётенька правду говорит…

  4. А почему не сказали про договор с Византией в 944году, он же был более удалив чем в 941?

  5. опять сыны израилева историю для гоев переписывают…

  6. Ну как то так себе.. много фантазии) лучше посмотрите фильм "Рюрик. Потерянная быль" режиссер Михаил Задорнов. Более правдивый фильм!


  8. Красиво сделан сериал, приятно слушать, но такое ощущение, что он ориентирован исключительно на старых бабушек, которые поверят в бессмертную душу, святые мощи и второе пришествие. Это грустно, что по федеральному каналу светского государства ведется прямая пропаганда религиозного невежества, прикрытая историческими данными.

  9. Есть теория что Рюрика украли из Славянских земель, украл его бездетный вождь Викингов, потому что тот был похожий на него Светловолосый и голубоглазый, И лишь спустя много лет он вновь прибыл на Родину

  10. Перестала смотреть после слов « славяне опомнились, поищем князя…нужен князь чужак…такого человека нашли за морем…»🤦🏻‍♀️ цветём и пахнем, но чего то не хватает.. мммм… точно! Надо что бы с нас некий хрен собирал дань и брал % с торгашей…. охх блииин.

  11. Вот она наследственность дурная – своя земля ломится от нищяков , но нет надо в Константинополь рыльце засунуть … И когда Олег успел стать русским и вообще все были славяне русины и тут раз – все русские сразу стали , вроде серьезные ребята Star Media и такие ляпы .

  12. Опять продвигают нордическую теорию на федеральном уровне! Как будто тупые славяне позвали умного европейца мля!) сколько можно??? смотрите Задорного как минимум (Рюрик), а лучше Н. Левашов!

  13. спасибо большое, очень помогает при подготовке к экзамену, да и вообще очень интересно смотреть с:

  14. Вот что надо показывать по телевидению ….а то как не включить телевизор …одна Тема …Украина…уже до тошноты….Спасибо вам за Фильм !

  15. прикольно, но ток самое интересное, что показывают факты в духе учебника, но с другой, такое ощущение, что из романов взяли некоторые обороты, которые порой неуместны. например говорят о происхождении рюрика юстландского и тут же рюрик хотел нежности баб, славы и денег

  16. Вот так вот взяли и позвали чужака мол владей нами.. Не правдоподобно как то

  17. всё враньё! Милер и Шлёцер славную сказку написали для не грамотных крестьян!

  18. История это не наука, ее пишут победители. То что сейчас знают о Рюриковичах было написано, а точнее переписано уже при Романовых-Голштейн-Готорпах. Романовы в 1613 году совершили государственный переворот и узурпировали власть, они же убили последнего из Рюриковичей царевича Ивана Дмитриевича, сына Дмитрия Ивановича, законного русского царя, сына Ивана Грозного.

  19. Норманофилы все никак не успокоятся, каждый правду в происхождении Рюрика решает для себя сам! Все же зовут к себе домой человека, который ни слова не понимает по русски и не знает ваших традиций, что бы он разрешал конфликты…

  20. много религиозных лобзаний! Человеку которой не религиозный это не очень нравиться! Делайте проста факты!

  21. Иранский, ютландский и даже кельтский, но только не вагрийский не ободритский не из ререгов сын Годслава и внук Гостомысла! дэ? Сучары!!! Можете до смерти гонять свою шарманку. Всё равно будем помнить о славных вандальских временах Радегаста!

  22. У меня даже слеза накатилась! Как долго я ждал знакомые голоса ведущих и эти серии! Спасибо тем, кто все это делает!

  23. Какая чушь для профанов создание Руси.Русь это территория современной Украины,Белорусии.А то,что в этом брехливом фильме выдают за Русь территории Севера это финоугорские племена, а не славяны.На кого расчитана эта псевдоисторическая чушь на современную безграмотную молодежь.

  24. Старые кремлевские сказки. Почему на России, основанной по указу хана Узбека, никогда ничего общего не имевшей с Русью так ненавидят свою историю?

  25. Шапка Мономаха это тюрская татарская тюбетейка с крестиком сврху.

  26. Русь древнее государство основанное Хельги провидцем! Руськие – племена славян и финно-угров которые стали платить дань Олегу (Хельги) а не хазарам!

  27. Вы памятник себе воздвигли нерукотворный! Блестящая работа. Спасибо! Покажу детям.

  28. на каком пёсьем языке они наедине разговаривали? Лишнехромосомные! )))

  29. Готовы назвать Рюрика хоть марсианином только не русским. Как разоренная земля могла нанять дружину? Очередное русофобское умопомешательство за деньги газпрома.

  30. Много придумано …историю славян тоже придумано! Центр Европы – оттуда пошли Славяне и языки славянских народов более 2000 лет назад! Киеву 1000! Москве 600-500?! А от Галич территория Украины более 2000 тис лет!!! Это в СССР учили! Язык корень один славянский!! Они похожи ! Не на днепре и волге! Это фикция! Фейк это все! А все что в сторону Москвы это все тюрки и татары их земля!! Людей дурят чтобы гордость росла

    Каждый правитель придумывает свою Историю и империи тоже- так всегда были! А Новгородское княжество пошло от Данило-галического княжества!!! Все с Европы пошло а с востока восточные народы… придумать легко что хочешь все слышалось. И История уничтожалась… а Рюрики Это татары

  31. Спасибо! Спасибо за такие фильмы! За то что можно показать ребенку и увлечь его историей, когда учителя не умеют этого делать! Спасибо за подачу! После Романовых не смеяли надеяться на такую удачу 🙏🏻

  32. Позор ещё и кометы удаляет, а потом идиоты будут смотреть и думать что такая история у России

  33. Сериал для массового зрителя, не отягощённого знаниями истории. Тем, кто читал Карамзина, Костомарова, Гумилёва, Соловьёва, Ключевского-просто красиво снятый школьный курс истории Руси. Но как поверхностные знания-довольно качественный фильм. Может быть, станет для некоторых отправной точкой серьёзного увлечения. Это сейчас важно, когда развелось дикое количество мракобесов и альтернативно одарённых историков.

  34. Наверное и сейчас хотят только наши власти что бы мы сказали приходите княжить и ВЛАДЕТЬ НАМИ!!!!

  35. Не знаю, кому и как, но я больше поддерживаю концепцию Фоменко-Носовского.А так просто интересное повествование.

  36. Представте себе, что сейчас мы выберем президентом, ну допустим, немца, фуфло же. А люди не меняются, так что весь фильм– фантазия, вымысел художественный.

  37. Все вранье, придумали. Рюриковичи бандиты и разбойники, легенду сами придумали!

  38. StarMedia мне очень понравился ваш сериал про Романовых, надеюсь, про Рюриковичей получу такое же наслаждение) Очень рад, что вы занимаетесь такими проектами, желаю, чтобы их было больше)

  39. Ольга Воротынцева. А чужака ни кто и не звал. Посмотрите фильм Михаила Задорнова: Вот ссылка: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oMjT8fNrO8E

  40. Рюрик не был иностранцем!!!! Дании тогда как и скандинавии вообoще не было!!!! Рюрик был Варягом – варили соль и создавали свои отряды по защите так как соль в те времена была очень дорогой – "просыпал соль – к сорре". Рюрик не приходил владеть в чужую страну. Он пришел править – объединить воюющие пламена. Так что…. Версия изложенная в данном фильмке уже очень очень устарела. Это версия советских школьных учебников.

  41. Жаль Пыжикова уже нет в этом мире и не сможет прокоментировать этот фильм.

  42. Да о чем речь,кто бы сомневался – ну конечно же,местные лохи-туземцы "пригласили" бригаду скандинавских бандюков-викингов на правление, точно также ,как ацтеки "пригласили" Кортеса. ))) И ладьи тоже славянские, не скандинавские.Всю Европу нагнули ,до Америки доплыли,везде огнём и мечем и только к славянам "по приглашению".Мало того, они еще и клятву на верность дали .))Бригада Рюрика присягнула не щемить местных торговцев мехами.)))Присягнула утюгами и паяльниками .))
    Человек – это звучит гордо!!!(Максим Горький)))

  43. Скоро сессия по истории, буду с вашими фильмами готовиться. Спасибо огромное)

  44. Вечер обещает быть интересным, спасибо большое за Рюриковичей,как долго я ждала цикл этих фильмов!)

  45. Музыкальное сопровождение просто шикарное!!!!аж дух захватывает!!!мне очень нравится!!!
    и фильмы у вас бесподобные!!!очень жду новых)))

  46. Довольно забавно объяснено появления герба – одинский ворон…


  48. Господи, неужели я дождалась. Спасибо вам ребята, вы огромные молодцы. Фильмы, как никогда кстати, потому что я готовлюсь к ОГЭ по истории. Аплодирую стоя.

  49. Рюрик был разбойник который грабил нас и наши караваны вместе с другими шайками.Поэтому его и пригласил защищать нас.Когда шайки разбижались его выгнали.А когда наши караваны снова начали грабить,но уже на днепровских поргах, снова пригласили защищать.Тогда то он и потребовал чтобы его власть переходила по наследству.

  50. В девяностые этих рюриков ну просто завались было. Так же на торговые пути и промыслы садились.

  51. Никакой Рюрик не швед. Швеции и небыло тогда. Рюрик был сыном Умилы, внуком Гостомысла князя Новгородского. Он наш Русский и никто другой.

  52. Древнерусское слово НАРЯД означает "хозяйственное поручение". Его "переводят" как якобы "порядок" только те, кто не служил в армии. Кроме того, "володеть" значит "управлять" (волостью), а не "владеть". Утверждение о том, что словене (новгородские) и другие племена северного объединения (русь, чудь, кривичи) якобы желали призвать "чужака", – такое утверждение в летописных первоисточниках отсутствует. Неправдиво и отрицание кельтических или иранских корней прибалтийской руси: эти языковые среды явно присутствуют и в именослове русов, и в названиях порогов Днепра (куда викинги не заходили), и в самóм священном политониме РУСЬ. Кроме того, авторитетная греческая хроника Георгия Кедрина (ХІІ в.) в сообщениях ХІ века замечает, что "вáряги (именно так, со славянским ударением на первом слоге) – это наёмники от кельтов", т.е. материковые воины. Что же касается династа, который должен был "володеть по праву" – осуществлять единоначальное развитие Матери-Земли по законам славянской Прави, – то это мог быть только славяноязычный родовой претендент. Кстати, по-славянски вáряг означает "защитник", слово является однокоренным с вáртой (охраной) и Вáруной – арийским богом Небесных Вод (прибалтийский дружинный Перун – его "продолжение"). Рюрик или Рерик – буквально "сокол", символ солнца у прибалтийских славян. Почитайте книгу Цветкова "Князь Рюрик и его время" (СПб, 2012), а из академической литературы – книгу языковеда Скляренко "Русь и варяги" (Киев, 2006).

  53. Посмотрите Фильм Михаила Задорнова " Рюрик потерянная быль". Ни какого чужака не приглашали вы только задумайтесь там от куда пришел этот чужестранец, что он не поднял народ к процветанию а убежал и давай тут командовать. Вранье чистой воды глупость для здравомыслящего человека. Рюрик Ророк если и был то был Словянином но не в коем случае не чужак. Урезали все пословицы и многое другое что бы наша нация и язык исчезали. Поклоняються исусу, это тоже самое что предать своих богов и в наше время писать иконы с президентом Америки и молиться на них. Они были есть и будут чужаки для нас Славян. Но рано радуются племя поганое.

  54. всё враньё! Милер и Шлёцер славную сказку написали для не грамотных крестьян!

  55. ВИДЕО по КАРАМЗИНУ, историка его императорского двора, не болле…

  56. Хорошая сказка,а как было на самом деле,никто не знает и не узнает НИКОГДА!
    Единственное,что ФАКТ!
    Так это то,что предали свою языческую веру-за то и платимся по сей день.

  57. Боже, какая редкая чушь! Ну зачем вы людям головы морочите?!! Нашли мне опытных менеджеров скандинавов тех времён!))).
    Опять же по всей России стоят каменные, допотопные шедевры архитектуры от прежней развитой цивилизации, а вы рассказываете про деревянные мостовые!🤣🤣🤣
    Вся современная история лживый новодел!

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