Hello, today we visit Krefeld Zoo. Werner Golinowska (caretaker): We are here in front of the gorilla installation in the Monkeys Tropical House at Krefeld Zoo. In this installation, three seniors live: Massa and the females Tumba and Boma. Massa is probably born in 1971 and both females in 1973. We don’t know the exact age because they came from the wild in human care. Massa being between 45 and 46 years old is the third oldest gorilla in Europe. Those three raised seven babies successfully. Massa and Boma raised five babies and Massa and Tumba two. All these babies came to other European zoos. Gorgo is the oldest one and lives in Rostock. He was hand-raised but could be reintroduced in the group successfully. The next one was Rebecca, who lives in Frankfurt and already had a lot of offspring there. After her Baghira was born and is now living in Munich. Then Kisoro was born and he lived in Basel but died there. Jambo, the last son of Massa and Boma, now lives in Apenheul. The two babies Massa had with Tumba are called Irala, who lived in Kerkrade until she died and Kira living in Moskow. All of them had their own offspring. At least Massa and Boma are already great-grandparents. At this age, you can notice so slowly the age-related problems of the gorillas, which are similar to those of humans. In the wild, they would be already dead because you won’t survive with the age-related problems. Massa, for example, has something you can call a pancreatic hypofunction and gets medication, which is nothing dramatic. But of course, you can’t survive in the wild, when you can’t digest properly. In the wild, animals, who become more immobile, will be killed and eaten by a leopard. Concerning the nutrition: We have to take care, that we don’t feed blowing food to Massa. That’s why we are a little bit limited concerning the vegetables we can choose. So we can’t feed most cabbages and we have to be careful concerning the lettuce species. He can eat endive lettuce, but not no ice lettuce or normal lettuce, because these would cause diarrhea. This is a problem we don’t have with the younger Gorilla group in the Gorilla Garden next to the house. The gorillas are fed three times a day. We disperse the food in the installation and we take care, that everyone has the opportunity to get his or her part form every food. We also use other food to cure or prevent diarrhea like fennel, who works very well. There are also other kinds of vegetables like celery, chicory et cetera. These vegetables are fed more frequently in the senior group than in the younger group, where also other vegetables are fed. We seldom feed fruits unless we use it to give them medication. Massa is very relaxed at the moment and you can see that because he nibbles his enrichment roles casually. The roll is filled with uninteresting food like stray food, grains, oatmeal, raisins because we want to prevent kerfuffle between the gorillas. Through using uninteresting food everyone grabs his role and observes it and eats what he or she finds in it. Since he arrived, Massa didn’t like heavily painted or masked people. We had massive problems during the carnival time. That’s why during this time when people enter the house with their costumes, we offer the apes to retreat to the part of the installation, where visitors and apes can’t see each other. It is enough already to have an artificial painted mustache or a heart on the cheek and Massa is irritated probably because the face looks so distorted for him and he feels threatened. So it doesn’t matter if it’s the princess with the heart because he’s not accustomed to it – especially concerning kids, which are normally loud, but innocuous. Lately, some people have hats, which look like a dead animal with googly eyes and he’s also irritated by this massively, too. That’s why there’s a sign at the entrance and we hope the people don’t let the hats on the heads of their kids in a warm tropical house. Of course, one advantage of a tropical house is, that you’ve got a lot of tropical plants and a big part of them can be used as food for the apes. For example, ficus benjamini ficus lyrata, the hibiscus species, and banana plants. The big advantage is, that you can feed it in the autumn, winter and till early spring when you can’t get fresh leaves from outside. The gardeners have to shorten the plants in autumn and spring because the quick growing trees would push up the roof if it would be done. We like to use the cut off to feed them especially to the gorillas, who need much roughage, but also the orangutans and the chimpanzees will get it.. Tumba, one of the females, is using one of our enrichment boxes. We can open the boxes, which have many floors, and fill them with nuts, sunflower seeds, oatmeal, and raisins. When the food is on the highest floor, the gorillas can use fingers or scraps to bring them to a lower floor until they can grab the food on the lowest floor. The females are more clever than Massa because he loses patience very quickly or ignores the boxes. Massa is eating Chinese cabbage and one may say: “Oh, cabbage bloats and causes diarrhea.” But Chinese cabbage is different to European cabbage species and not related. Chinese cabbage does not develop these bloating substances and that’s why we can use the Chinese cabbage as food. In addition to that European cabbage species are also not similar bloating – we don’t have problems with kohlrabi. In Krefeld, multiple research was conducted with our great apes. Often researchers aim to find out which great ape species is more intelligent, but of course, you can argue, what is a higher grade of intelligence: Who is more intelligent – the person, who is good at maths or the person, who speaks a lot of languages? It’s a similar question with orang-utans, chimpanzees, and gorillas: they are intelligent in different ways. Orang-Utans, for example, are the fummlers and modelers: they sit in front of a task for half an hour and then they complete it, gorillas and chimpanzees rather quickly lose patience. We had an experiment, in which the apes had to understand more and more complicated mechanisms to get some treats. First, the gorillas couldn’t do it and rashly stamped as stupider until the researchers got to know that the mechanism only had to be built less fragile, so that the gorillas with his bigger fingers could operate it like the other apes could with their smaller one, the gorillas also reached the treats. If you’ve got more questions, write them down in the comments below and if you enjoyed watching this video, make sure you give us a thumb up. You can subscribe our channel for free to never miss an episode.