India’s Chandrayaan 2 Mission UPSC General Studies & Current Affairs Topic

India’s Chandrayaan 2 Mission   UPSC General Studies & Current Affairs Topic


Hello friends. Welcome to Paathashaala. Please do subscribe to my channel and also
click the bell icon so that you will get a notification every time a new video is uploaded. In this video, we will learn about Chandrayaan
2 Mission of India. This is an important topic for UPSC General
studies Prelims and Mains under science and technology section, which has increasing importance
and weightage in the UPSC exams. Let’s start the topic. The Chandrayaan 2 Mission lifted off successfully
on 22nd July 2019 from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre Shar on its second attempt to place
the satellite at 6000 thousand kilometres more than what was planned before. The launch vehicle that carried the Chandrayaan
2 was the GSLV Mark 3 M1. The GSLV Mark 3 vehicle has properly injected
Chandrayaan 2 in the defined Orbit. The orbit is 6000 kilometres more than what
was calculated. The satellite will have more life more fuel
and more time to handle the manoeuvres said the ISRO chairman K Sivan. This is a historical journey of India towards
the moon and land at a place near the South Pole to carry out scientific experiments to
explore unexplored areas. The successful placing of the satellite in
a geosynchronous transfer orbit is the first step in this very complex operation. ISRO aims to soft-land the Lander and the
rover on the Moon’s surface on September 7th. Both the Lander and the rover are expected
to be soft-landed at a high plane between the craters Manzinus C and Simpelius N this
is a point on the moon where the lander and the rover would be at a point facing the Earth
and would have started receiving sunlight by September 6 -7 window enabling the solar-powered
Rover and the Lander to work for a period of 14 Earth days. Chandrayan means moon vehicle in Sanskrit. What is special about the Chandrayaan 2 is
that it is an Indian lunar mission that will boldly go where no country has ever gone before,
that is the moon’s south polar region. The aim of this mission is to improve our
understanding of the Moon, that will benefit India and humanity as a whole. With the launch of Chandrayaan 2, India will
become the fourth country to land on the moon after the former Soviet Union, United States
and China to cement its place among the world’s spacefaring nations. On 18th September 2008, then Prime Minister
Manmohan Singh approved the Chandrayaan 2 lunar mission. Chandrayaan 2 is India’s second lunar mission
after Chandrayaan 1 that assisted in confirming the presence of water on the moon in 2009. What happened initially was ISRO planned to
tie up with Russia to develop the Lander and orbiter for the Chandrayaan 2 Mission, but
later due to the time constraint and other reasons Russia withdrew from the agreement. A few details about Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1 was launched on 22nd October 2008. It played a crucial part in the discovery
of water molecules on the lunar surface. Chandrayaan 1 mission sent its instruments
called moon impact probe to crash land on the moon’s surface. ISRO said that the data sent by the moon impact
probe has shown evidence of the presence of water which was confirmed through studies
produced by another instrument onboard the Chandrayaan 1 spacecraft which is the M3 or
moon mineralogy mapper that had been put up by NASA. There are three things that are involved in
the Chandrayaan Mission 2, they include a lunar Orbiter, rover and Lander. This mission completely is developed by the
Indian Space Research Organisation. The weight of the spacecraft is 3800 kilograms. The launch vehicle for this Chandrayaan 2
Mission would be the geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle Mark III GSLV 3. ISRO has named The Lander as Vikram after
India space Pioneer Vikram Sarabhai and Rover as Pragyan which means wisdom in Sanskrit. The Lander, as well as the rover, will have
the Indian tricolour National Flag painted on them. Ashok Chakra will be imprinted on the rover
spherical wheels. Orbiter of the Chandrayaan 2 will circle the
moon and provide information about its surface. They collect information on lunar topography,
mineralogy, elemental abundance, lunar exosphere and signatures of hydroxide and water ice. The Rover of the Chandrayaan 2 Mission will
move semi-autonomously examining the regolith’s composition. Chandrayaan 2 will attempt a soft landing
in a high plane between two craters – Manzinus C and Simpelius N – at a latitude of about
70 degrees south. Among the three components of Chandrayaan
2, the Orbiter and Lander will be mechanically interfaced and stacked together as an integrated
module and or accommodated inside the GSLV Mark 3 launch vehicle whereas the rover is
kept inside the Lander. After the launch of the Chandrayaan 2 using
the GSLV Mark 3 launch vehicle, the module will be placed into the Moon’s Orbit using
orbital propulsion module. The mass of this Chandrayaan spacecraft will
be 3.8 tonnes. Chandrayaan 2 the lunar Lander mission will
have 14 Indian payloads or study devices according to the ISRO. Obiter: Orbiter of the Chandrayaan 2 will
circle the moon and provide information about its surface. It will Orbit the moon at a distance of hundred
kilometres from the Moon’s surface. The payloads that are present on the orbiter
include large-area soft X rays spectrometer, l and S-band synthetic aperture radar, imaging
IR spectrometer, neutral mass spectrometer and Terrain mapping camera 2. They collect information on lunar topography,
mineralogy, elemental abundance, lunar exosphere and signatures of hydroxide and water ice. The structure of the orbiter was manufactured
by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. The weight of the arbitrary is 2379 kilograms. It has an electric power generation capability
of thousand watts. At the time of launch, the Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter
will be capable of communicating with Indian deep space network at Byalalu as well as the
Vikram Lander. The mission life of the arbiter is one year
and it will be placed in a 100X100 kilometre lunar polar Orbit. Lander: The Lander will detach from the Orbiter
and it will descend to a lunar Orbit before attempting to land on the surface. It will make a soft landing and then release
the rover. It will also perform some scientific activities
for about 15 days. The payloads that are present on the Lander
includes seismometer, thermal probe, Langmuir probe and radio Occultation. The Lander of the Chandrayaan 2 will have
5 legs. The name of the Lander is Vikram. Its weight is 1471 kilograms and it has an
electric power generation capability of 650 Watts. The Lander is designed to function for one
lunar day which is equivalent to about 14 Earth days. This cylinder is designed to execute a soft
landing on the lunar surface. Rover: the robotic Rover Pragyan will probe
the lunar terrain. The Rover of the Chandrayaan 2 Mission will
move semi-autonomously examining the regolith’s composition. Regolith means the layer of loosely arranged
solid material covering the bedrock of a planet. The weight of the rover is 27 kilograms. It will operate on solar power. It has 6 wheels and will conduct chemical
analyses on site. It will then transfer the data to the orbiter
which will send this back to the earth station. The payloads on the rover include laser-induced
breakdown spectroscope and Alpha particle-induced x-ray spectroscopy. The name of the rover is Pragyan which is
has a weight of 27 kilograms and an electric power generation capability of 50 Watts. It can travel up to 500 metres and leverages
solar energy for its functioning. It can also communicate with the Lander Launcher: The GSLV Mark III will carry Chandrayaan
2 to its designated Orbit. This three-stage vehicle is India’s most powerful
launcher till date and is capable of launching 4 ton class of satellites to the geosynchronous
transfer Orbit. The components of the GSLV Mark III includes
s200 solid rocket boosters, L110 liquid stage, c25 upper stage Some Milestones
This was the first space mission to conduct a soft landing on the moon’s south polar region. Chandrayaan 2 is the first Indian expedition
to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with homegrown technology. Chandrayaan 2 is India’s first mission to
explore the lunar terrain with homegrown technology. Chandrayaan 2 makes India the fourth country
ever to soft-land on the lunar surface. Cost of the Mission
The cost of Chandrayaan 2 Mission is rupees 978 crores. This includes rupees 603 crores for the orbiter,
Lander, Rover, navigation and ground support Network and rupees 375 crores for the heavy
rocket geostationary satellite launch vehicle with the indigenous cryogenic engine. Why wasn’t PSLV used for
Chandrayaan 2? PSLV has its limitations. It doesn’t have enough power to carry heavier
satellites or to go deeper into space. PSLV can deliver a payload of about 1750 kilograms
to low Earth orbit up to an altitude of 600km from the Earth’s surface. It can go a few hundred kilometres higher
in the geostationary transfer Orbit but only with the reduced payload. Chandrayaan 1 weighed 1380 kilograms while
Mangalyaan weighed 1387 kilogram. That is why both these mission Chandrayaan
1 and Mangalyaan used PSLV launch vehicle. But as the weight of the Chandrayaan 2 is
more than 1750 kilograms, which is about 3800 kgs, PSLV is not the correct option. The polar satellite launch vehicle is best
suitable for common satellites used for Remote Sensing broadcasting and navigation that are
below 1500 kilogram and need to be put into low Earth orbit. Better to launch a satellite that is much
heavier and which have a range of 4000 to 6000 kgs and to be put into the geostationary
orbits that are over 30,000 kilometres from the Earth’s surface, the launch vehicles need
significantly more power. For such purposes, we use the Geosynchronous
satellite launch vehicle. This geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle
can carry heavier payload and travel deeper into space. GSLV Mark 3 which is to be used for the launch
of Chandrayaan 2 is the latest and more powerful. Previously it carried and deployed the GSAT
19 communication satellite on June 5th 2017 and then the GSAT 29 communication satellite
on November 14 2018. How will the Chandrayaan 2 Mission study the
moon? Using the Terrain mapping camera2 which is
on the Orbiter, the mission will produce images of the Moon remotely from a hundred-kilometre
lunar polar Orbit. While the Moon rotates about its Axis the
orbiter gets a view of its entire surface from overhead. This data collected by the orbiter will be
used to produce a 3D image of the moon’s terrain. What is the need for this mission? The moon has a clean, fresh and original environment
to study. And also it is closer than other celestial(related
to space) bodies. Understanding how it formed and evolved can
help us better understand the solar system and even earth itself. Learning more about earth’s space neighbour
can help in advanced missions and it can provide answers to questions like, how the solar system
and its planets have evolved. This is a piece of brief information about
Chandrayaan 2 Mission. I hope you enjoyed this topic. If so please do like share and subscribe. Also post your views in the comments section. Thank you all. See you soon.

One thought on “India’s Chandrayaan 2 Mission UPSC General Studies & Current Affairs Topic

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